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English

English - Year 1
During year 1, teachers will build on work from the Early Years Foundation Stage, making sure that pupils can sound and blend unfamiliar printed words quickly and accurately using the phonic knowledge and skills that they have already learnt. Teachers will also ensure that pupils continue to learn new letter sounds and revise and consolidate those learnt earlier. The understanding that the letter(s) on the page represent the sounds in spoken words underpins pupils’ reading and spelling of all words. 

Alongside this knowledge of phonics, pupils will to develop the skill of blending the sounds into words for reading and establish the habit of applying this skill whenever they encounter new words. This will be supported by practice in reading books consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and skill and their knowledge of common exception words. At the same time they hear, share and discuss a wide range of high-quality books to develop a love of reading and broaden their vocabulary.

Pupils will be helped to read words without overt sounding and blending after a few encounters. Those who are slow to develop this skill will have extra practice.

Pupils’ writing during year 1 will generally develop at a slower pace than their reading. This is because they need to encode the sounds they hear in words (spelling skills), develop the physical skill needed for handwriting, and learn how to organise their ideas in writing.

Pupils entering year 1 who have not yet met the early learning goals for literacy will continue to follow the school’s curriculum for the Early Years Foundation Stage to develop their word reading, spelling and language skills. However, these pupils will follow the year 1 programme of study in terms of the books they listen to and discuss, so that they develop their vocabulary and understanding of grammar, as well as their knowledge more generally across the curriculum. If they are still struggling to decode and spell, they will to be taught to do this urgently through a rigorous and systematic phonics programme so that they catch up rapidly.

Teachers will ensure that their teaching develops pupils’ oral vocabulary as well as their ability to understand and use a variety of grammatical structures, giving particular support to pupils whose oral language skills are insufficiently developed.

English - Year 2
By the beginning of year 2, pupils should be able to read all common graphemes. They should be able to read unfamiliar words containing these graphemes, accurately and without sounding them, that are matched closely to each pupil’s level of word reading knowledge. They should also be able to read many common words, for example, shout, hand, stop, or dream, without needing to blend the sounds out loud first. Pupils’ reading of common exception words, for example, you, could, many, or people, should be secure. Pupils will increase their fluency by being able to read these words easily and automatically. Finally, pupils should be able to retell some familiar stories that have been read to and discussed with them or that they have acted out during year 1.

During year 2, teachers will continue to focus on establishing pupils’ accurate and speedy word reading skills. They will also make sure that pupils listen to and discuss a wide range of stories, poems, plays and information books; this will include whole books.

In writing, pupils at the beginning of year 2 should be able to compose individual sentences orally and then write them down. They should be able to spell correctly many of the words covered in year 1. They should also be able to make phonically plausible attempts to spell words they have not yet learnt. Finally, they should be able to form individual letters correctly, so establishing good handwriting habits from the beginning.

It is important to recognise that pupils begin to meet extra challenges in terms of spelling during year 2. Increasingly, they will learn that there is not always an obvious connection between the way a word is said and the way it is spelt. Variations include different ways of spelling the same sound, the use of so-called silent letters and groups of letters in some words and, sometimes, spelling that has become separated from the way that words are now pronounced, such as the ‘le’ ending in table. Pupils’ motor skills also need to be sufficiently advanced for them to write down ideas that they may be able to compose orally. In addition, writing is intrinsically harder than reading: pupils are likely to be able to read and understand more complex writing (in terms of its vocabulary and structure) than they are capable of producing themselves.

For pupils who do not have the phonic knowledge and skills they need for year 2, teachers will use the year 1 programmes of study for word reading and spelling so that pupils’ word reading skills catch up. However, teachers will use the year 2 programme of study for comprehension so that these pupils hear and talk about new books, poems, other writing, and vocabulary with the rest of the class.

The National Curriculum in England - DfE